HMI GCI Commentary Establishing the New Paradigm 2013 and Ongoing Global Earth Changes

What Are The Causes Of Global Warming?

Global warming is an aspect of climate change, referring to the long-term rise of the planet’s temperatures. what are the causes of global warming? It is caused by increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, mainly from human activities such as burning fossil fuels, deforestation and farming.

Causes Of Global Warming

Climate change continues

Establishing the New Paradigm 2013 and Ongoing Global Earth Changes |  HeartMath Institute

Despite global efforts to address climate change, including the landmark 2015 Paris climate agreement, carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels continue to rise, hitting record levels in 2018.

Many people think of global warming and climate change as synonyms, but scientists prefer to use “climate change” when describing the complex shifts now affecting our planet’s weather and climate systems. Climate change encompasses not only rising average temperatures but also extreme weather events, shifting wildlife populations and and habitats, rising seas, and a range of other impacts.

IPCC conclusions

To come to a scientific conclusion on climate change and what to do about it, the United Nations in 1988 formed a group called the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, or IPCC. The IPCC meets every few years to review the latest scientific findings and write a report summarizing all that is known about global warming. Each report represents a consensus, or agreement, among hundreds of leading scientists.

One of the first things the IPCC concluded is that there are several greenhouse gases responsible for warming, and humans emit them in a variety of ways. Most come from the combustion of fossil fuels in cars, buildings, factories, and power plants. The gas responsible for the most warming is carbon dioxide, or CO2. Other contributors include methane released from landfills, natural gas and petroleum industries, and agriculture (especially from the digestive systems of grazing animals); nitrous oxide from fertilizers; gases used for refrigeration and industrial processes; and the loss of forests that would otherwise store CO2.

Burning fossil fuels

Study: we must cease adding to our fossil fuel infrastructure

When we burn fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas to create electricity or power our cars, we release CO2 pollution into the atmosphere.

Australians are big producers of CO2 pollution compared to the rest of the world. Our level of CO2 pollution per person is nearly double the average of other developed nations and more than four times the world average.

Electricity generation is the main cause of carbon pollution in Australia as 73% of our electricity comes from burning coal and 13% from burning gas. The remaining 14% comes from renewable energy sources such as hydro, solar and wind, which do not emit carbon.

Greenhouse gases

As discussed above, greenhouse gases warm Earth’s surface by increasing the net downward longwave radiation reaching the surface. The relationship between atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases and the associated positive radiative forcing of the surface is different for each gas. A complicated relationship exists between the chemical properties of each greenhouse gas and the relative amount of longwave radiation that each can absorb. What follows is a discussion of the radiative behaviour of each major greenhouse gas.

Radiative forcing

In light of the discussion above of the greenhouse effect, it is apparent that the temperature of Earth’s surface and lower atmosphere may be modified in three ways: (1) through a net increase in the solar radiation entering at the top of Earth’s atmosphere, (2) through a change in the fraction of the radiation reaching the surface, and (3) through a change in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In each case the changes can be thought of in terms of “radiative forcing.” As defined by the IPCC, radiative forcing is a measure of the influence a given climatic factor has on the amount of downward-directed radiant energy impinging upon Earth’s surface. Climatic factors are divided between those caused primarily by human activity (such as greenhouse gas emissions and aerosol emissions) and those caused by natural forces (such as solar irradiance); then, for each factor, so-called forcing values are calculated for the time period between 1750 and the present day. “Positive forcing” is exerted by climatic factors that contribute to the warming of Earth’s surface, whereas “negative forcing” is exerted by factors that cool Earth’s surface.

Volcanic Eruption

Long-dormant volcano that came to life in Iceland | Iceland News | Al  Jazeera

Volcanoes is one of the causes of global warmingexpel. It is large quantities of carbon dioxide when they erupt. Volcanoes have an overall small effect on global warming and an eruption causes a short-term global cooling as ash in the air reflects greater amounts of solar energy.